ssh-Zy-im-kv{Xw Ch-sb tcm-K-§-fm-bn ]-cn-K-Wn-¡m-dnÃ, a-dn-¨v A-]-cn-lm-cy-am-b im-cocn-I am-\knI A-
h-Ø-I-fp-sS K-W-¯n-em-Wv DÄ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv. am-ä-ap-­ണ്ടm-¡m-\m-hm-¯-sX-¶v ssh-Zy-im-kv{Xw hn-
iz-kn-¡p-¶ Cu A-h-Ø-IÄ kw-hm-Z-hn-j-am-Ip-t¼mÄ H-c-n-¡epw ]-c-¼-cm-K-Xam-b \n-K-a-\-§fpw hn-izm-
k-§fpw am-dm-dp-anÃ. A-Xp sIm-­ണ്ടp X-s¶ ssh-I-ey-Nn-In-Õ-bn hen-b sa-¨-sam¶pw A-h-Im-i-s¸-Sm-
\nÃm-¯ Nn-e ]-g-b ap-d-IÄ am-{X-am-Wv Im-Wm-³ km-[n-¡pI. Cu A-h-Ø-I-fp-sS Imc-Ww F-´m-sW-¶v
Ir-Xy-am-bn A-]-{K-Yn-¡m³ ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-¯n-\v km-[n-¨n-«p-anÃ. 

B-[p\nI ssh-Zy-im-kv-{Xw KÀ`m\-´-c-Im-e-¯vv Ip-«n-bpsS im-cocn-I am-\kn-I L-S-\-bn-ep-­ണ്ടm-hp-
¶ ]m-fn-¨-I-sfbpw t]m-cm-bv-a-I-sfbpw ssh-I-ey-¯n-\p \n-Zm-\-am-bn ]-cn-K-Wn-¡p¶p. \n-ch-[n Im-c-W-§-
fn H-¶p am-{Xam-b Cu Im-eL-«w ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-Ibpw A-Xn A-t\j-Ww A-h-km-\n-¸n-¡p-I-bpw sN-¿
p¶ ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X ]-co-£-W-§Ä A-Xn-sâ ]-cn-an-Xn-sb hn-fn-t¨m-Xp¶p. sshI-ey Nn-In-Õ t\-cn-Sp-¶ G-
ähpw hen-b shÃp-hn-fnbpw A-Xp X-s¶-bm-Wv. KÀ`-]qÀÆ, KÀ`m-\-´c Ime-L-«-§Ä Xpey-{]m-[m\yap-Å-h-
bm-Wv, Chbpw sshI-ey-§fpw X½n-epÅ _Ôw ]cn-tim-[n-¨m AXv a\-Ên-em-Ipw.
ssh-I-ey-§-fp-sS Im-c-W§-sf hy-à-am-bn a-\-Ên-em-¡p-¶-Xn-\v a-\p-jy-i-co-cw F-¶v k-¦oÀ-®amb -
kw-hn-[m\-s¯ a-\-Ên-em-¡n-bn-cn-t¡­ണ്ട-Xv A-Xym-h-iy-am-Wv. A-Xn-sâ B-Zy]-Sn a-\p-jy-P-\\-s¯ im-kv-
{Xo-b-am-bn a-\-Ên-em¡p-I F-¶-XmWv. {]]-©-¯nse Gähpw henb ]cn-Wm-a-{]-{In-b-bmWv a\p-jy-P-\-
\w, AWp-hn-kvt^m-S-\-s¯-¡mfpw hepXv F¶p ]d-bp-¶Xv AXn-i-tbm-àn-b-Ã. Gähpw AXn-i-b-I-c-amb
Cu cmk-{]-{In-b¡v {]IrXn tIm¸p-Iq-«n-b-Xv a\p-jysâ DZ-c-¯n-em-Wv F-¶-Xm-Wv c-k-I-cam-b h-kvXpX.
]pcp-j\pw kv{Xobpw X½n-ep-­ണ്ടm-hp¶ imco-cnI _Ô-amWv Cu ]cn-Wm-a-¯n\v hgn-sbm-cp-¡p-¶Xv, P\n-
¡p¶ Ip«nbv¡v ]pcp-j³ ]nXmhpw kv{Xo amXm-hp-am-Ip-¶p. P\-\w F-¶ k-¦oÀ-® cm-k-{]-hÀ-¯-\-¯n-
\v X-¿m-sd-Sp-¡p-¶ ]-¦m-fnIÄ GXm\pw Nne tbmKy-X-IÄ t\Sn-bn-cn-t¡-­Xv Ah-iy-am-Wv. B tbm-Ky-X-IÄ
cm-k-L-S-\m-]-c-am-bXpw ssh-Im-cn-I-am-bXpw H-s¡-bm-Wvv.  

a\p-jy-i-cocw At\-Im-bncw cmk-L-S-I-§-fm k¼p-jvS-amb AXn-k-¦oÀ®-amb Hcp kmt¦-Xn-I-
kw-hn[m\-am-Wv. cmk-aq-e-I-§Ä, kwbpà-§Ä, [mXp-¡Ä, A¶-Pw, teml-§Ä apX-emb \nc-h[n ]
ZmÀ°-§-fmWv Hcp a\p-jy-i-co-c-¯nsâ tNcp-h-IÄ. Cu ]-ZmÀ-°-§-fp-sS hn-Xc-Ww im-cocn-I {]-hÀ-¯-
\§-sf \n-b-{´n-¡p¶p. ChbpsS {Iam-\p-_-²hpw IrXy-hp-amb hnX-cWw ico-c-¯nsâ icn-bmb LS-
\bpw {]hÀ¯-\hpw Dd¸p hcp-¯p-¶p. Hmtcm cmk-]-ZmÀ°hpw H¶n-t\m-sSm¶v F¶ {Ia-¯n tbmPn-
¸n-¨-XmWv ico-c-¯nsâ cmk-L-S-\. A-¯-c-¯n hy-Xy-kv-X-hpw X-\-Xp-kz-`m-hw ]p-eÀ-¯p-¶-Xpam-b A-t
\-Iw ]-ZmÀ-°-§-fmWv Hmtcm i-co-c-¯nepw D-­m-hpI. Hmtcm ]ZmÀY-s¯bpw 1 F¶v hnfn-¡mw, 1 a-säm-¶nÂ
\n¶vv hy-Xy-kv-X-amWv, tbm-Pn-¸n-¡-s¸-Sp¶ 1+1 cq]-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶Xv hyXy-kvX-amb asämcp ]ZmÀ°-s¯-bm-
Wv. Xp-SÀ-¶p-Å kw-tbm-P-\-§Ä A-t\-Iw hy-Xy-kv-X-]-ZmÀ-°§-sf kr-ãn-¡p¶p. A\-´-amb ]ZmÀ°-
kw-tbm-P\w \S-¡p¶ AXn-k-¦oÀ®amb cmk-{]-{In-b-bmWv ico-c-¯n \S-¡p-¶-Xv. {]-Xy-£-¯n I-s­
ണ്ട-¯m-\m-hm-¯ C-h B-´-cn-I-am-b im-cocn-I am-\kn-I \n-b-{´-Ww \nÀ-Æ-ln-¡p¶p.
]-ZmÀ-°-§Ä Hmtcm im-co-cn-Iþ am-\-kn-Iþ ssh-Imcn-Iþ km-aqlnI [À-½-§-fp-am-bn _-Ô-s¸-«n-cn-
¡p¶p. C-h-bp-sS hn-\ymkw {]-kvXp-X [À-½-¯n-\v i-coc-s¯ {]m-]v-X-am-¡p¶p, H¸w ]-ZmÀ-°-¯n-sâ A-
e`y-X [À-½ \nÀ-Æ-l-W-¯n-\v i-coc-s¯ A-tbm-Ky-am-¡p-¶p. ]ZmÀ°-§-fpsS hnX-cWw icn-bmb tXmXn-
em-sW-¦n Btcm-Ky-apÅ km[m-cW hyànbpw A]m-I-X-bpÅXmsW-¦n hn`n-¶-ti-jn-¡mc\pw
krjvSn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p.  imco-cnI _Ô-¯n-teÀs¸-Sp¶ kv{Xo]p-cp-j-·mÀ cmk-L-S-\m-]-c-amb tbmKyX \ne-
\nÀ¯p-¶n-Ã-sb-¦n P\n-¡p¶ Ip«n-bnepw AXv {]I-S-am-Ipw. amXm-]n-Xm-¡-fp-sS cm-k-L-S-\-bpsS kzm[o
\w hfsc hep-Xm-bXp sIm-­vണ്ട AXnse ]mfn-¨-IÄ Ip«n-bn henb tXmXn-epÅ Btcm-Ky-{]-iv\-§-fp-­m-
¡p¶p.

sshZy-im-kv{X-{K-Ù-§-fn inip-hnsâ Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb hfÀ¨bv¡v \nc-h[n Imc-W-§Ä hnh-cn-
¡p-¶p-­v. A\-h[n Kth-j-W-§fpw Cu taJ-e-bn \S-¶n-«p-­v. ssi-ih ssh-I-ey-§-sf-¸-än \-S-¡p-¶ ]T-\-
§-fn cmk-L-S-\m-]-c-amb sshI-ey-§sf ]cn-K-Wn-¡p-¶nà F¶Xv Hcp hkvXp-X-bm-Wv. I-s­-ണ്ട¯m-\m-
hm-¯Xpw A-dn-bm-\m-hm-¯Xpw Xn-c-kv-I-cn¡p-I F¶-Xv B-[p\n-I im-kv-{X-§-fp-sS c-£m-amÀ-¤-am-W-tÃm.
F-s´m-s¡-bm-Wv cm-k-L-S-\m-]-camb ssh-I-ey-§Ä kr-ãn-¡p-¶-sX-¶v \-ap-s¡m-¶v ]cn-tim-[n-¡mw. 

]n-Xm-hn-sâ im-cocn-I am-\-kn-I hy-h-lm-c-§Ä P-\n-¡-s¸-Sm³ t]m-hp-¶ in-ip-hn kzm-[o-\w sN-
ep-¯p-¶-Xv KÀ-`m[m\¯n-sâ L-«w h-sc-bm-Wv. AXn\p tijw ]nXm-hnsâ kzm[o\w Ipd-bp-¶p, XpSÀ¶v
amXm-hmWv {`qW-h-fÀ¨-bnse {][m-\-I-®n. KÀ`m-i-b-¯n-\p-Ånse Ip«n-bpsS hfÀ¨ \nb-{´n-¡p-¶Xv s]
m¡nÄs¡mSn F-¶ amXrico-c-`m-K-am-Wv. Ip«nsb KÀ`-]m-{X-hp-ambn _Ôn-¸n-¡p¶ hÅn-t]m-se-bpÅ `mK-
amWv s]m¡nÄs¡m-Sn. Imhy-im-kv{X-§-fn amXr-Xz-¯n-sâbpw amXr-hm-Õ-ey-¯n-sâbpw DZm-l-c-W-ambn
kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶ Cu A-hbhw imkv{X-Im-c-·mÀ¡pw Gsd {]nb-s¸-«-Xm-Wv. amXm-hn \n¶pw KÀ`m-h-Ø-
bn-epÅ in-ip B-h-iy-§Ä \n-d-th-äp¶Xvv Cu Ah-bhw hgn-bm-Wv. am\-knI imco-cnI sshIm-cnI Xe-
§-fnse Ip«n-bpsS hnIm-k-¯n\m-h-iy-amb ]ZmÀ°-§Ä e`n-¡p-¶Xpw CtX _Ô-¯n \n¶m-Wv. s]m-
¡nÄ-s¡m-Sn h-gn am{Xw e-`n-¡p-¶ ]-ZmÀ-°-§-fm-Wv {`qW-s¯ KÀ-`m-h-Ø-bn kw-c-£n-¡p-¶Xv. amXm-
hnsâ am\-kn-I-þ-im-co-cn-IþsshIm-cnI Ah-Ø-IÄ Cu ]ZmÀY-hn-X-c-Ws¯ kzm[o-\n-¡p-¶p. KÀ`m-h-
Ø-bn Ip«nsb t\cn«p _m[n-¡p¶ H¶mWv amXm-hnsâ sshIm-cnI k½À±-§Ä. amXm-hn-sâ a-\-ÊnÂ
D-S-se-Sp-¡p¶ {]Xn-Iqe hnIm-c-§Ä Ip-«n-bpsS hfÀ¨-sbbpw hnIm-k-¯n-\m-h-iy-amb aqe-I-§-fpsS
hnX-c-W-s¯bpw tZmj-I-c-ambn _m[n-¡p-¶p. Ign-¡p¶ acp-¶p-IÄ, B-lmcw F¶nh t]mse Xs¶ Ah-
cpsS Nn´m-{]-{In-b-bvvv¡pw sshIm-cnI kwLÀj-§Ä¡pw Ip-«n-bp-sS h-fÀ-¨-bn hen-b ]-¦m-Wp-Å-Xvv.
am-Xm-]n-Xm-¡Ä A-`nPm-X KÀ-`-¯n-\v A-tbm-Ky-cm-bn-cp-¶tXm s]m-¡nÄ-s¡m-Sn h-gn ]-ZmÀ-°-§Ä e-`n-¡m-
Xn-cp-¶tXm H-s¡-bmhmw ]e ssh-I-ey-§-fp-tSbpw Im-c-Ww. B-[m-\ Im-e-t¯m, KÀ-`-Im-e-b-fhntem \-ã-
s¸« B ]-ZmÀ-°-§Ä F-t¸mÄ F-hn-sS h-¨v \-ã-s¸-«p F-¶ a-\-Ên-em-¡m³ ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-¯n t]mw-
h-gn-I-sfm¶pw X-s¶-bnÃ. A§-s\ I-s­-¯m³ km-[n-¡m¯-Xv {]-kvXp-X A-h-ØI-sf A-]-cn-lm-cy-am-¡n
am-än F-¶p th-Ww I-cp-Xm³.
tcm-K-§-fn \n-¶v ssh-I-ey-§Ä F§-s\ hy-Xym-k-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p F-¶p t\m-¡mw. G-Xp tcm-K-\n-
hm-c-W-¯n\pw c-­ണ്ടp L-«-§-fpണ്ട­v, tcm-Kw I-s­-ണ്ട¯epw Nn-In-Õ-bp-amW-h. H-cp tcm-Kw Nn-In-Õn-¨v t`-Z-
am-¡p-¶-Xn-\v A-Xn-sâ Im-c-W-§Ä a-\-Ên-em-¡n-bn-cn-t¡ണ്ട-­Xpw A-Xym-h-iy-amWv. i-co-c-im-kv-{X-Im-c-·
mÀ tcmK-s¯ im-cocn-I e-£-W-§Ä D-]-tbm-Kn-¨m-Wv a-\-Ên-em-¡p-¶Xv. tcm-Kw hÀ-²n-¡m³ C-S-bm-Ip-¶
km-l-N-cy-§Ä H-gn-hm-¡m\pw A-Xv k-lm-bn-¡pw.
D-Zm-l-c-W-¯n-\v ]-\n h-¶m a-\-Ên-em-¡m³ A-Xn-sâ e-£-W-§-fp­vണ്ട, ]-\n hÀ-²n-¡p-¶ km-l-N-cy-§-
sf¸-än Nn-In-Õ-IÀ t_m-[-hm-·m-cp-amWv. A-t¸mÄ H-cp tcm-Kn-sb Nn-In-Õn-¡m-\pw, tcm-Kw hÀ-²n-¡m³ C-S-
bm-¡p-¶ km-l-N-cy-§-fn \n-¶v am-än \n-dp-¯p-hm\pw km-[n-¡pw. H¶mw L-«-¯n-se hnP-bw cണ്ട­mw L«-
s¯ F-fp-¸-am-¡p¶p. tcm-K-\nÀ®-bw X-s¶-bm-Wv Nn-In-Õ-bp-sS Im-XÂ F-¶p ]-d-ªmepw sX-änÃ.  ssh-
I-ey§-sf kw-_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯m-fw ssh-Zy-im-kv{Xw ]-cm-P-b-s¸-Sp¶-Xv B-Zy-L-«-¯n-emWv. B ]ng-hv c­ണ്ടmw
L«w, A-Xmb-Xv Nn-InÕ-sb A-km-[y-am-¡p-¶p. Im-c-W-§Ä I-s­ണ്ട-¯msX, A-\pIq-e {]-XnIq-e km-l-
N-cy-§Ä a-\-Ên-em-¡m-sX F-§-s\-bm-Wv Nn-In-Õn¡pI?

A-t\-Iw K-th-j-W-§Ä \-S-¶n«pw ssh-I-ey-§-fp-sS Im-c-W-§Ä I-s­ണ്ട-¯m³ B-[p\nI ssh-Zy-
im-kv-{X-¯n-\v km-[n-¨n-«nà F¶-Xv H-cp t]m-cm-bv-a-bmWv. A-Xp sImണ്ട-­p X-s¶-bm-Wv B-[p\nI ssh-Zy-
im-kv-{X-¯n-\v D¯-cw I-s­ണ്ട-¯m-\m-hm-¯ k-a-ky-bmbn, A-]-cn-lm-cyam-b H-cp Øn-Xn-hn-ti-j-am-bn
ssh-I-ey-§fpw ssh-cq-]y-§fqw \n-e-\nÂ-¡p-¶-Xv. Imc-Ww \nÀ-®-bn-¡m³ km-[n-¡m-¯n-S-t¯m-fw A-tX
A-h-Ø Xp-S-cp-sa-¶v D-d-¸m-Wv. I-gn-ªp t]m-b H-¶n-s\ hy-à-am-bn ]Tn-¡m³ ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-¯n-sâ C-
t¶ h-sc-bp-Å km-t¦-Xn-I-X A-]-cym-]vv-X-amWv, ssh-I-ey-§-fp-sS Im-cy-¯n hn-e-§p-X-Sn-bm-bn \nÂ-¡p-
¶Xpw A-Xv X-s¶-bmWv. ln-t¸m-{Im-ä-kn-sâ A-tem-¸-X-n-bp-sS ]g¡w ക്രിസ്തുവിനുമുമ്പ്‌ 460 h-sc-bm-sW-
¶v K-Wn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p-sh-¦nepw B im-kv{Xw C¶pw ssi-i-h-Z-i-bn-emWv. B-[p\nI ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-¯nepw
i-co-c-im-kv-{X-¯nepw ssh-I-ey-§-sf ]-cn-l-cn-¡p-¶-Xn ]-cym-]v-X-am-b kw-hn-[m-\-§-fp-sS A-`m-hw Ah-
sb A-]qÀ-®-am-¡p¶p. ]p-¯³ I-sണ്ട­-¯-ep-Ifpw ]-g-b I-s­ണ്ട-¯-ep-I-fp-sS s]m-fn-s¨-gp-¯p-Ifpw A-\p-
Zn-\w kw-`-hn-¡p-¶-Xv B im-kv-{X kw-hn-[m-\-¯n-sâ A-]qÀ-®-X-bv-¡v a-säm-cp-Zm-l-cWw. ssh-I-ey-§-fp-
am-bn _-Ô-s¸«pw ]p-¯³ I-s­-ണ്ട¯-ep-IÄ kw-`-hn-¡p-¶p-sh-¦nepw A-h-sbm¶pw sshI-ey \nÀ-½mÀ-Ö-
\-¯n-\v ]-cym-]v-XaÃ

sshI-ey \nÀÆ-l-W im-kv{Xw ssh-I-ey-§-sf I-sണ്ട­-¯n ]-cn-l-cn-¡p-¶-Xp-am-bn _-Ô-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-
¶p. ln-t¸m-{Im-ä-kn-sâ ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-¯n \n-¶p hn-`n-¶-am-bn ssh-I-ey§-sf I-sണ്ട­¯n, C-g-Io-dn ]cn-
tim-[n-¨v A-]-{KY-\w \S-¯n Im-c-W-§Ä a-\-Ên-em-¡m³  km-[n-¡p¶p. G-sXm-s¡ ]-ZmÀ-°-§Ä F-{X-
b-f-hn \-ã-s¸-«p F-¶v Ir-Xy-am-bn I-s­-¯m³  I-gn-bpw. \-ã-s¸-« ]-ZmÀ-°§-sf hn-P-b-I-c-am-bn ]p-
\:Øm-]n-¡m\pw A-Xph-gn ssh-I-ey§-sf ]-cn-l-cn-¡m\pw km-[n-¡pw. ]-ZmÀv-°-irw-J-e-bp-sS ]p-\-Øm]-
\w \-ãam-b ti-jn-IÄ ssI-h-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\v ssh-I-ey-¯n-sâ Cc-sb {]m-]v-X-am-¡p¶p. Disability &
Deformity Elimination Science(DDES) F-¶ \q-X-\ km-t¦Xn-I hn-Zy D-]-tbm-Kn-¨v ]-ZmÀ-°-irw-J-e-bn-
se t]m-cm-bv-a-IÄ ]-cn-l-cn-¡m³ A-\m-bm-kw km-[n-¡p¶p. ]-ZmÀ-°-hn-\ym-kw i-cnbm-b co-Xn-bn Øm-
]n-¡-s¸-«p I-gn-ªm ssh-I-ey-§Ä hn-kv-ar-Xn-bn-em-hpw. DDES F-¶ im-kv-{X-im-J-bv-¡v KÀ-`þ KÀv-`m\-´-
c Im-e-L-«-§-fn-se hn-hn-[X-cw t]m-cm-bv-a-IÄ I-sണ്ട­-¯n ]-cn-l-cn-¡m³ km-[n-¡pw. F-¶n-cp-¶m-epw, ssh-
I-ey-§Ä CÃm-¯ H-cp tem-Iw km-[y-am-h-W-sa-¦n am-Xm-]n-Xm-¡Ä X-§Ä-¡m-h-iyam-b cm-k-L-S-\m-]-
camb tbm-Ky-X-IÄ ssI-h-cn-t¡-­-Xv B-h-iy-am-Wv.
DDESssh-I-ey§-sf ]-cn-]qÀ-®-ambpw ]-cn-l-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-em-Wv C-t¸mÄ {]-[m-\-{i² sIm-Sp-¡p-¶-sX-
¦nepw aäv A-h-Ø-I-fnepw k-ao-]-`m-hn-bn ]-co-£n-¡-s¸-Smw. `m-hn X-e-ap-d-bn \n¶pw ssh-I-eyþssh-cq-
]y§-sf th-tcm-sS \o-¡w sN-¿m-\m-Ip-sa-¶v {]-Xym-in-¡mw.
a-\p-jysâ sshIm-cnI {]{In-b-IÄ H-cÀ-°-¯n bm{´n-I-amWv, Hm-tcm¶pw A-Xn\\p-kr-X-am-b cm-k-L-
S-I-§Ä AYhm tlmÀtam-Wp-IÄ krjvSn-¡p-¶p. Nn-cn-¡p-t¼m-gpw, I-c-bp-t¼mgpw Nn-´n-¡p-t¼mgpw A-
\pkrX tlmÀ-tam-Wp-IÄ kr-ãn-¡-s¸-Sp¶p. Hmtcm hnIm-c-¯n\pw A\p-]q-c-I-amb tlmÀtam-Wp-I-fm-Wp-
Å-Xv, Cu tlmÀtam-Wp-IÄ ico-c-¯n Ah-bpsS kz`m-h-¯n-\-\p-k-cn-¨pÅ amä-§Ä krjvSn-¡p-¶p.
\ÃXpw No¯-bp-amb kzm[o-\-§Ä Chbv¡v sNep-¯m-\m-hpw. amXm-hnsâ \à sshIm-cnI hyh-lm-c-
§Ä Ip«nsb \à coXn-bnepw {]Xn-Iqe hyh-lm-c-§Ä tami-ambpw _m[n-¡p-¶p. KÀ-`-Im-e-¯v am-Xm-hn-s
\ a-\-Êw-LÀ-j-¯n \n-¶v H-gn-hm-¡-W-sa-¶v ]-g-a-¡mÀ ]-d-bp-¶-Xn-sâ ]n-¶n-se im-kv-{Xhpw C-Xp X-
s¶-bm-hmw. ]-g-b hm-Z-K-Xn-IÄ F-´p-am-hs«, a-t\m-hy-h-lm-c-§-fp-sS kzm-[o-\w \n-kv-XÀ-¡am-b H-cp im-
kv-{Xo-b h-kvXpXbmWv.
ssh-Imcn-I A-\p-`-h§-sf kzm-[o-\n-¡p-¶ Nn-e Im-cy-§Ä ]cn-tim-[n-¡mw. KÔ-§Ä-¡v a-äp ar-K-
§-sf-t¸mse a-\p-jysâ sshIm-cn-Im-\p-`-h-§-sfbpw amän-a-dn-¡m³ km[n-¡pw. acp-¶p-IÄ¡v F{X-kzm-[o-
\-aptണ്ടm AXn H«pw Ipd-bm¯ kzm[o-\-amWv KÔ-§Ä¡p-Å-Xv. GXm­vണ്ട 17000þ ]cw KÔ-§sf a
\p-jysâ \mkn-Ibv¡v Xncn-¨-dn-bm-\mhpw F¶v imkv{Xw hne-bn-cp-¯p-¶p. CXn 60 iX-am-\-hpw {]Xn-Iq-
em-\p-`-h-§Ä krjvSn-¡p-¶-h-bm-Wv. am-Xm-hv A-\p-`-hn-¡p-¶ K-Ô-§Ä A-h-bv-¡-\p-kr-X-amb ssh-Imcn-
I A-\p-`-h-§-sf-bpw, B A-\p-`-h-§Ä A-\pkrX tlmÀ-tam-Wp-I-sfbpw kr-ãn-¡p¶p. A§-s\ kr-ãn-
¡-s¸-Sp¶ tlmÀ-tam-Wp-IÄ Ip-«n-bn t\-cn-«v A-h-bp-sS kzm-[o-\w sN-ep-¯p¶p. A-{X-t¯m-fw hn-im-
ehpw k-¦oÀ-®-hp-am-Wv a-\p-jy-P\-\w F-¶ cm-k-]-cn-Wmaw.

am-Xm-hnsâ imco-cnI-þ-am-\-kn-I-þ-ssh-Im-cnI hyXn-bm-\-§-sfbpw AØn-c-XIsfbpw Ip«n Bl-cn-
bv¡p¶p F¶p thWw Icp-Xm³. ImcWw Ah Ip«n-bn LS-\m-]-c-ambn A{Xt¯mfw henb kzm[o-\-
amWv sNep-¯p-¶-Xv. \n-§-sf-´p I-gn-¡p¶p-thm, \n-§Ä A-Xm-bn-¯o-cp¶p, F-¶ ]-gb sNmÃp t]m-se
Nn-´-Ifpw am-\kn-I hy-h-lm-c-§-fpw Ip-«n-bp-sS cm-k-L-S-\-bn Xm-Zm-ßy-kz-`m-hw kr-ãn-¡p¶p.

KÀ-`-s¯-¡p-dn-¨v am-Xm-]n-Xm-¡Ä A-dn-bp¶-Xv Ht¶m ct­m am-k-§Ä-¡p ti-j-amWv, F¶m A-dn-
bm-sX t]m-Ip¶ Cu Im-e-L-«hpw Ip-«n-bp-sS h-fÀ-¨-bn {]-[m-\-s¸-« H-¶mWv. Cu Ime-¯v am-Xm-hv A-
\p-`-hn-¡p¶ FÃm km-l-N-cy-§fpw Ip-«n-bn t\-cn-«v {]-`m-hw kr-ãn-¡p-¶p, Imc-Ww cm-k-L-S-I-§-fp-sS
hy-h-lm-cw A-t¸mgpw \-S-¡p-¶p-­v. Cu c-­v am-k-¡me-s¯ cm-k-L-S-I-§-Ä-¡v Ip-«n-bp-sS A-SnØm-\ LS-\m
h-fÀ-¨-bn hen-b ]-¦p-­v. ]-e- ssh-I-ey-§fpw Cu Im-e-b-f-hn kr-ãn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶-Xp-amWv. Ah-sâ i-co-
cw ({`qWw) A-SnØm-\ hn-Im-k-¯n-\pÅ ]-ZmÀ-° hn-Xc-Ww B-h-iy-s¸-Sp-Ibpw, A-Xn-\-\p-kr-X-am-bn s]
m-¡nÄ-s¡m-Sn hn-Xc-Ww \-S-¯p-Ibpw sN-¿p¶p. Cu hn-X-c-W-¯nse G-sX-¦nepw hn-[-¯n-ep-Å A-]m-I-X-
IÄ A-\-`n-Pm-Xam-b hn-Im-k-¯n-te-¡v A-Xm-bXv, ssh-I-ey-§-fn-te¡pw ssh-cq-]y-§-fn-te¡pw \-bn-¡
p¶p. ap³-]v ]-dª t]mse Hmtcm ]-ZmÀ-°-¯n\pw A-X-n-tâXm-b [À-½-§-fp-­v, A-Xn-sâ A-`m-hw {]-kvXp-X
[À-½w \nÀ-Æ-ln-¡p-¶-Xn Ip-«n-sb A-{]m-]v-X-\m-¡p-¶p.

im-co-cn-Iþam-\-kn-Iþ km-aq-ly X-e-§-fn-ep-Å Hmtcm IÀ-½-hpw ^-e-{]-Z-ambn A-\p-jvTn-¡p-¶-Xn-\v
A-Xn-tâXm-b ]-ZmÀ-°-§Ä i-co-c-¯n D-­ണ്ടm-bn-cn-t¡­-Xv A-h-iy-amWv. B ]-ZmÀ-°-¯n-sâ A-`m-hw H-cp
hy-àn-sb B  [À-½w \nÀ-Æ-ln-¡p-¶-Xn A-tbm-Ky-\m-¡p-¶p. e-fn-X-am-bn ]-d-ªmÂ, hn-aÀ-i-\-_p-²n hn-
I-kn-¡-W-sa-¦n A-Xn-\m-h-iyam-b ]-ZmÀ-°w H-cm-fn D-­ണ്ടm-th­ണ്ട-Xv A-Xym-h-iy-am-Wv. A-Xn-sâ A-`m-
hw B hy-àn-sb hn-aÀ-i-\-_p-²n CÃm-¯-h-\m-¡p¶p. im-cocn-I [À-½-§-fp-sS Øn-Xnbpw CtX t]m-se
X-s¶-bm-Wvv.  am-Xm-hn-sâ a-t\m-hy-h-lm-c-§Ä tlmÀ-tam-Wp-I-fm-bn cq-]-s¸-Sp-sa-¶v t\-c-t¯ ]-d-ªn-cp-¶-
tÃm, B tlmÀ-tam-Wp-IÄ s\-K-äo-hv B-sW-¦n Ip-«n-bn {]-Xn-Iq-em-\p-`-h-§Ä kr-ãn-¡p-sa-¶v hy-à-
am-Wvv.

am-Xmhv IS-¶p t]m-Ip-¶ FÃm km-l-N-cy-§fpw A-h-bv-¡-\p-kr-X-am-b cm-k-]-ZmÀ-Y§Ä kr-ãn-¡
p-¶p.  s]m-¡nÄ-s¡m-Sn h-gn {`q-W-¯n-se-¯p-¶ Cu ]-ZmÀ-°-§Ä Ip-«n-bnepw A-h-bp-sS kz-`m-hw {]-I-Sn-
¸n-¡p¶p. ]-Zm-À-° hn-X-c-W-¯n-se Xm-f-¸n-g-I-fn-te-¡m-Wv C¯-cw km-l-N-cy-§Ä \-bn-¡pI. G-sX-¦n-
epw [À-½-hp-am-bn _-Ô-s¸-« ]-ZmÀ-°-§-fp-sS hn-X-c-W-¯n ]m-fn-¨-I-fp-­m-bm B [À-½-§Ä sN-¿p-¶-
Xn-\v B-h-iyam-b ti-jn Ip-«n-bn A-{]-Xy-£-am-bn-cn-¡pw. A-Xv im-co-cn-I-hpw, am-\-kn-Ihpw H-s¡-bm-
Imw. P·-\m DÅ ssh-I-ey-§Ä C¯-cw km-l-N-cy-§-fn-te-¡m-Wv hn-c Nq-­p-¶-Xv. A-Xv k-ab-¯v I-s­
ണ്ട¯mt\m ]-cn-l-cn¡mt\m B-h-iyam-b km-t¦Xn-I hn-Zy B-[p\n-I im-kvv-{X kw-hn-[m-\-¯n CÃ
F¶-Xv H-cp \yq-\-X-bmWv. Np-cp-¡-¯nÂ, hn-Im-k-¯n-\m-h-iyam-b ]-ZmÀ-°-hn-X-c-W-¯n-se A-]m-I-X-I-fm-
Wv ssh-I-ey-§-fn-te-¡v \-bn-¡p-¶-Xv.